The Time of Troubles is a period in Russian history from 1598 to 1613. This period was characterized by natural cataclysms, foreign intervention, a roster of impostors on the Russian throne, the Russian-Polish and Russian-Swedish wars, and also socio-economic and political crises.
In 1613 the first tsar from a dynasty of Romanovs - Michael Fedorovich Romanov comes to reign.
There is a hypothesis according to which, following the results of Time of Troubles, Russia, partly or completely, has lost the independence, having appeared in dependence on Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this connection, there are features of statehood which Russia has lost during the Time of Troubles:
- State symbols
So let's take a closer look at these points.
As a result of the Time of Troubles, Russia lost a fairly vast territory. The main losses were the loss of access to the Baltic Sea and the rollback to the borders of a century ago. The capital of Russia - Moscow - was only 200 kilometres from the Russian-Polish border.
After the Time of Troubles new symbols of royal power appeared in Russia - the orb and sceptre. The orb is also called the "Polish apple". The first orb belonged to Boris Godunov. Before the Romanovs came to power such symbols of power were nowhere recorded.
After the Time of Troubles foreign currency was circulating in the country.
Under the first Romanovs a church reform was carried out. The reform led to a church split in the Russian Orthodox Church, which began in the 1650s in Moscow. The schism was linked to the reform of Patriarch Nikon, which aimed to make changes to Moscow's liturgical books and some rites in order to unify them with the modern Greek ones.
The Church reform itself, started by Nikon in 1653-1655, consisted in the following: baptism with three fingers instead of two; replacement of the Earth bows by the belt bows; triple Hallelujah chanting instead of double; movement of the faithful in church past the altar not after the sun, but against it. The name of Christ is spelled differently - Jesus, instead of Jesus, and others.
The whole XVIIth century was called "rebellious". This was due to the fact that throughout the century people's riots broke out now and then.
The year 1648 was the year of the Salt Revolt, as a result of which many boyars were killed and the Sobor Code was passed, which finally ensured serfdom for the peasants.
In 1650 there were rebellions in a number of large cities, which were suppressed by the army.
1662 The Copper Riot was caused by the fact that the state stopped minting copper money.
1667-1671 Stepan Razin's rebellion was suppressed by the Tsarist army. In the same years there was a rebellion in the Solovetsky monastery, which led to the persecution of the Old Believers.
Under the first Romanovs weapons were imported from abroad, and foreign regiments were formed, modelled on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In 1684 the last Assembly of the Land in Russian history took place. He decided the question of perpetual peace with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After that there were no more zemsky sobors, which was the result of the reforms carried out by Peter I regarding the whole social structure of Russia and strengthening of absolutism.
Thus, it can be concluded that Russia, after the period of the Time of Troubles, lost its independence, becoming dependent on the Commonwealth of Poland, and the first Romanovs defended the interests of the Polish party.